HomozygosityMapper has recently been extended to other species beyond humans. While we could import a variety of chips and provide the infrastructure to upload genotypes created with them, we could not test all of them - simple due to the lack ofthe genotypes. If you cannot upload your data or want other species or chips to be included, please send an email to dominik.seelow (at) charite.de.
You can use HomozygosityMapper without a personal account. However, with a user profile, access to your data will be facilitated and you can also change the access restrictions (only you, everyone, selected co-operation partners) at any time.
It is not possible to choose a user name that is already in use, HomozygosityMapper will raise an error in such cases.
You should always enter a valid e-mail address because we will inform you in advance when major changes to the website are
planned or when we have to archive old projects due to disk space limitations.
If you want to upload, analyse, or view genotypes of any non-human species or want to switch to another species, simply click on the correct species in the panel on the left top of the homepage.
So far, HomozygosityMapper covers the following species:
Please see contributions for copy rights.
|Genotypes from VCF files and the following chips can be imported:
To import the genotypes, specify a new project name under new project name or select one of your existing projects (add to existing project) if you want to add new genotypes. Adding genotypes to an existing project is also the solution for projects run on chip sets consisting of more than one chip (see 'mixing' below).
You can also decide whether or not you want to make the project public (checkbox access restriction).
After choosing the project, you have to select the respective genotyping chip or 'VCF' (drop-down menu chip), point to the genotype file (genotype file) and eventually submit the data.
SNP genotype files must be tabular with the samples as columns and the SNPs as rows, they can (or rather should) also be zipped or gzipped. Lines starting with the number sign (#) will be ignored. Sample files to demonstrate the allowed formats can be found here. The genotypes must be written in standard Affymetrix or Illumina notation, i.e. (NoCall, AA, AB, BB or -1, 0, 1, 2 for Affymetrix and --, AA, AB, BB for Illumina, respectively).
VCF genotype files must combine the genotypes of all samples in one file (see below). A short description and a sample VCF file
can be obtained from the file formats page.
# all BAM files in the same directory samtools mpileup -D -gf /path/to/genome.fa *.bam | bcftools view -c -g - > filename.vcf # BAM files in different directories samtools mpileup -D -gf /path/to/genome.fa /path/to/bam1.bam /path/to/bam2.bam | bcftools view -c -g - > filename.vcf # reference genome: /path/to/genome.fa # output file: filename.vcfPlease read the manuals of SAMtools / bcftools to find the appropriate settings for your data.
GATK offers a similar option.
The data import may take seconds or even half an hour, depending on the size of the file, the upload speed and the working load of our server.
When the upload has been finished, you can proceed to the next step.
Mixing of arrays with different markers per sample is possible. However, HomozygosityMapper only considers markers that
were genotyped for a sample. That means, that if you mix different arrays you will automatically obtain lower homozygosity scores
for samples with fewer genotypes.
After the genotypes were imported, you can start the homozygosity mapping. First, you must select the project you want to analyse (drop-down menu project) and provide a new for the analysis (analysis name). You can specify further details under analysis description which will be displayed together with the analyses' names to indicate specific models etc. which might be too complex to include them in the name.
Under cases and controls, you can specify the samples that should be regarded as cases or controls, respectively. Cases are, of course, obligatory. Please note that sample IDs must be written exactly as in the genotype file; HomozygosityMapper will, however, complain, if it cannot find a sample.
If your cases are from a single family or if you are absolutely sure that there is no genetic heterogeneity among the samples you plan to analyse as cases, you can tick the require genetic homogeneity box. In this case, homozygosity in all case samples is required for a region to be included. The new release extends this feature: The case samples must share the same homozygous genotype. In the text field exclude homozygous stretches in controls >= below, you can define a threshold for the length of homozygous blocks in controls. Whenever these exceed this value, the region will be excluded. The suggested values (printed next to the input field) are relatively high to reduce the risk of false negatives.
If you are interested in the excess of homozygous over heterozygous genotypes, you can change the allele frequencies drop-down menu to compare homozygosity in affected indivuals with homozygosity in your controls or one of the four HapMap populations. These frequencies are only plotted in the graphical output and will not affect the analysis in any way, though.
Another parameter to be set is the maximum block length (limit block length). If this field is left empty, a default setting for the set of markers will be used. If you don't want to limit the block length, specify a negative value. While the default settings are suitable for most analyses, after a visual inspection of the results you may decide to re-analyse your data according to the degree of homozygous blocks in your data. A small value might be appropriate if you want to find a founder mutation in a very large sample consisting of individuals from non-related families. Default values are:
number of SNPs block length limit > 800000 1000 > 400000 500 > 200000 250 > 45000 80 > 0 15
Only count blocks longer than x . This parameter is an experimental way to fine-tune the block length settings. This is a lower limit of the block length; i.e. only homozygous stretches longer than n bases are be included in the score. This switch is helpful when you expect a large degree of genetic heterozygosity and hence only a small proportion of cases to be homozygous at the same location. This might be the case if you study many single cases from consanguineous families which might not share the same disaese locus.
The analysis might take several minutes to complete.
The analysis is described in more detail here.
This interface allows you to select one of your own analyses (coloured blue) to inspect homozygosity scores and genotypes. In addition, analyses of other researchers made public (green) or accessible for you (black) will be listed. Analyses are ordered by project name and analysis name. Your own analyses appear on top of the list.
Simply click on the correct analysis to inspect genome-wide homozygosity.
If you are interested in the homozygosity around some candidate genes, use the GeneDistiller link on the right of each item. Please note that GeneDistiller is be opened without any further information and will complain unless you enter your candidate genes or a genomic region of interest.
Here, the homozygosity scores are plotted against the physical position.
The interface can either display the whole genome, a single chromosome or a
selected region on a single chromosome. Interesting regions are indicated by red
Below the scores, two links to GeneDistiller are shown, either for the broad or the narrow regions.Below the regions, links to GeneDistiller and export options are displayed:
In the whole genome view, clicking on a chromosome will zoom on this chromosome.
After clicking on a chromosome, the view zooms into this chromosome. Now only the interesting regions located within the selected region (here: the chromosome) will be displayes as links.
chomosomal homozygosity - zoom in
After clicking on the edges of the region the user want to study in details, a pop-up will appear and offer links to further zoom in or to see the underlying genotypes.
The genotype view depicts the single genotypes of all samples marked as cases or controls. The genotypes are indicated as coloured boxes; where blue codes for heterozygous, grey for unknown and red for homozygous genotypes. Different shades of red are used, longer homozygous stretches will be drawn in a 'deeper' red than single homozygous markers. Genotypes homozygous for the minor allele are marked with a black diagonal bar.
The homozygous region found by HomozygosityMapper is shown as a rectangle, it's limits can be shifted to other markers by clicking on these.
After the region has been defined, you can go ahead by clicking on the GeneDistiller button to find candidate genes (see below) within the region.
HomozygosityMapper integrates with GeneDistiller. When clicking the GeneDistiller button, GeneDistiller's query interface will open with the correct region filled in. Clicking on submit in this interface will list all genes within the region; for a description how GeneDistiller can be used to focus on genes of interest take a look at it's manual:
When GeneDistiller is queried from HomozygosityMapper, each gene will carry another link, 'HomozygosityMapper', which will open the genotypes view and indicate the position of the selected genes within the genotypes. Bookmarking GeneDistiller's settings (on the bottom of it's results list) will maintain the hyperlinks to the respective homozygosity mapping.
You can use this interface to fine-tune access to your data. It will display a table with all of your projects as rows and all user logins as columns. For each user and project, you can select whether he or she shall be allowed to query your data. You can further grant the right to perform new analyses on your data to collaborators (the project and the analyses will remain under your control though). At the end of each row, you have the option to grant (or revoke) query permissions to the public.
Click on SetPermissions when you're done.
Use this interface to delete single analyses within a project or complete projects.
All of your projects and analyses will be listed. Checking a project/analysis will mark it for deletion; if you delete a project, all analyses performed with that dataset will be deleted as well.
Please note that deleted data will be lost forever.
HomozygosityMapper is based on a PostgreSQL database, all interfaces were written in Perl. The database schema and further details can be found in the technical documentation.
The application was developed using various flavours of Mozilla Firefox. It was further tested with Microsoft Internet Explorer 7 and should work
|We include some benchmarks to demonstrate the speed of HomozygosityMapper. Two examples were uploaded and analysed twice under normal usage of the webserver and the RDBMS. Please keep in mind that a heavy load on the server and especially a slow network connection may decrease the application's speed significantly.
In addition to the web-based version, a stand-alone application exists. This program does not make use of a database and interfaces were created with Perl/Tk. While it offers speed gains for small chips (up to 50,000 SNPs), the performance decreases with the number of markers being studied. This version is not supported anymore but we will gladly share the source code. Please send us an e-mail if you are interested.
|HomozygosityMapper--an interactive approach to homozygosity mapping.
Seelow D, Schuelke M, Hildebrandt F, Nürnberg P.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 May 21.
If you are unsure which medium best suits your contact needs: E-Mails are preferred. :-)
Why can't I further zoom in on a single chromosome? Why can't I change the limits of a homozygous region?
I forgot my login and/or my password. What can I do?
I am using a chip that is not listed, how can I upload my genotypes?
I made a terrible mistake and deleted my project. Is there any way to restore it?
Is the data within HomozygosityMapper stored forever?
I have created an account but I cannot log in. Why?
Why can't I add another VCF file to an existing project?
How is this homozgyosity score calculated?
humans: L. Salzman Sagan, C. Sagan, F. Drake / NASA
mouse: The Tango! Desktop Project
rat: Martin Krzywinsk
sheep: Michał Pecyna